Change in Europe, such as revolutions or political shifts, forced many people out of their home countries. Many of them, by 1910 13,500,000 people, wanted to explore the "American Dream" by coming on ships to the United States. They came to America at Ellis Island, people of all ages being taught English and being given a test on American history and the government before the immigration officials decided if they were fit to be US citizens. Many of the immigrants were from Ireland, which had endured a famine, Italy, where there were changes in the goverment, and from Russia, with many serfs seeking freedom under the American flag. But many other ethnic groups, such as Jews (many of whom had experienced anti-Semitism), Asians (who were upset with the imperial rule in China and Japan), and Pacific Islanders, came in through either San Francisco, or sometimes, Ellis Island, although it was farther away from their country. At the time, there were also many British, French, Hispanic, German, Greek, African, Arabs, Indian, and Scandinavian immigrants in the USA. This caused the US economy to both boom with money due to several new jobs, or crashes (like in 1929) due to the lack of available jobs. NYC became known as "the melting pot", due to the combination of several ethnic groups in one country.
Many Italians who moved from Italy became a part of organized crime, or were already mobsters who wanted to expand their criminal empire into America. Some notable immigrants were Vito Corleone, who fled Sicily to avoid being killed by Francesco Sciacca, Don Vito Genovese, Lucky Luciano, Gabriele Capone (whose son Al Capone became the most-feared mob boss in Prohibition), Joe Masseria, and several other future mob bosses or associates.